Archive for the ‘Hollow tube’ Category

Just a note about adding corners.  Though I didn’t do it, adding corners to a cover isn’t hard.  You simply cut a piece of leather to about the size of the corner you want.  Paste it out and place it over the corner.  You wrap the edges around to the inside of the cover where it gets a little trickier.  You don’t want to have a large bump on the inside of the cover where the leather meets in the corner.  So you need to do something similar to creating an origami squash fold (yes, I do origami too 🙂 ).  That’s where you have two sides folded together into a point that you squash down.  To squash it, you hold the two sides where they meet, opening the fold somewhat, and then literally squash the point down. In this case, you would cut out the squashed fold leaving a neat seam.

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The next day, I cut the boards for the cover and prepped them for covering. The boards should be cut to match the height of the book with the headbands, and the grain should run vertically.

Once the boards were cut, we marked where the tapes went on the board and made sure to make some sort of mark on the spine and cover to indicate which cover went on which side. The next step was back cornering. This involved giving the inside corners, those that would go into the spine, about a 45° angle. The corner was cut on a downward angle so that the bottom was thinner than the top. It was shaved not cut off. After that we sanded all of the outside edges to give them a slight angle.

ChannelsI then punched holes with an awl about 1/2 inch within the middle of each tape mark. As with the tight back, I shaved the inside to make the hole smoother. The main difference in this case was that we cut channels into the front of the cover to the tapes to go through. The channels were about the thickness of the tapes and allowed them to lay flatter on the cover.

Saran wrapAfter that, I wrapped the pages in saran wrap, and cut pieces of museum board the same thickness and length as my covers and glued it to the inside edge of the covers. This creates a space for the spine so that when the leather shrinks and dries, the covers will still have room to open. After that, it’s a matter of threading the tapes through the holes, shredding them, gluing them to the inside of the covers with paste, and hammering them flat on the inside.Shredded tapes For drying and pressing, the inside of the covers are closed over a piece of blotter paper on top of a sheet of tin. The tin keeps the tapes from embossing the paper.

The next step is splitting the tube at the top and bottom so that the leather will be able to go inside it. We split the tubes about 1 inch. Ideally, the split would be the exact same length of whatever the foldover will be.

To attach the leather, it is pasted until it is saturated. Then attached to the spine only. Once it is attached, the excess at the top and bottom are folded into the hollow tube and over the cover boards. Then the leather is attached to the front of the covers by smoothing it out over them.

The finishing steps are exactly the same as what was done with the tight back. If I had wanted to put corners on the book, which is nice to help give the book a distinctive front or back, that would have be done before lining the front. One step that I left out was trimming the leather after it was dried. Because leather stretches when it is wet, it ends up as a wavy line on the covers. To be able to adjoin the decorative paper to the leather, it was necessary to trim the leather on the covers to give it a straight line. This was actually very easy to do. I just used my scalpel and my straight edge and cut it. It lifted away from the board very easily. The hardest part was keeping the straight cut around the top and bottom to also cut the excess from the inside covers.

Adding the linerAdding the end papersFinished hollow tube book

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Making the hollow tube book was very similar to the tight back. For this one, we created 10 signatures and it was sewn on tapes instead of cords. So in creating the jig to punch the holes for sewing, I had to have the tapes in hand because the thread goes around the tapes to hold them in place. Therefore, my jig had to account for the width of the tapes.

Sewing the hollow tubeIn sewing this one, I could have chosen to use a straight stitch over the tapes, but I chose to do a sort of herringbone pattern by going through the thread from the signature below before going back in. The only thing to watch out for in doing this is to make sure not to catch any threads from the tape. That limits how much the thread can be tightened.

For either of these books, we could have used a sewing frame instead of doing it freehand, but that looks more complicated to me. Susan said that using a frame is great if you are sewing several books at the same time. The way that the frames are set up can end up wasting a lot of tape otherwise.

The purpose of the tapes is that same as that of the cords, to help anchor the signatures to the cover. The tapes we used were made by German company and were very easy to shred. Unfortunately, I can’t remember anything else about them.

Gluing the spine

After the signatures are sewn together, we glued the spines with PVA. Unlike the tight back, the PVA was put over the tapes as well. Again, this is done to strengthen the spine and help it to hold the bend.

When the glue was no longer tacky, we hammered the spines. The book was laid on the table and the spine was hammered toward me. This type of hammering doesn’t use a regular hammer. It has a much wider flatter head. I basically followed the same steps as before. Flipping the book periodically until I had a basic curve, putting it into the press to continue hammering, and then gluing japanese tissue paper to the spine.

Gluing the japanese paper is slightly different for this book. The paper goes the entire length of the spine and covers the tapes. So, you glue the spine and then lay the paper on it. After it was somewhat dry, I glued the headbands on.Rounded spine with headbands

Applying the hollow tubeAt this point, it was time to create the hollow tube that the book is named after. The hollow tube allows the book to open flatter and raises the pages. We used Canson paper to make the tubes. Basically, the tubes are the length of the spine by three times the width of the spine. To make it, I used the same folding techniques that I used in making the conservation enclosures. I cut my paper, making sure that my folds would follow the grain, used my bone folder to score and create the first fold. Then I used open edge from the first fold to mark where to score and make the second fold. The only thing to keep in mind was that the flaps should not overlap completely. This would cause one part of the spine to stand out more than the other once the leather was put on. Next, I glued the overlapping flaps together and made sure that the tube would still open by inserting a long thin round stick in it to test it out. Once that was done, I glued up the spine and applied the tube, making sure that the overlapping flaps were visible and that the single side was applied to the spine. I used my bone folder to mold the tube to the spine, and this took a little time because the Canson paper is stiff.

The book is then pressed over night.

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